Lact - Palo Alto School Representative

Palo Alto School Representative

Center for training, intervention and research

Strategic systemic approach and hypnosis

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      School bullying:
      relational complexity and systemic approach
      Proposals to finally get out of a great malaise

      Put debate and conflict management back at the center of education

      At a time when harassment has become part of everyday discourse, understanding the processes that drive and maintain harassment can help us take action. How to counter this form of toxic relationship? Systemicists are mobilizing so that an interactional reading of harassment is taught in national education curricula.

      Yann is 9 years old. He's a strong head, a little leader of the gang. Alexis is a good student, shy, introverted, solitary. Yann shoves him, then laughs. Alexis replies “it’s not funny”. The shoving, mocking and intimidation follow one another more and more quickly. Then come insults and bullying. The acts are repeated and the harassment takes hold. The other “Yann gang” get started. The humiliations become daily. Alexis says “Stop! You do not have the right ". Alexis no longer sleeps, withdraws even more into himself, he cries at night, he has a stomach ache in the morning, a headache. His academic results are falling. He eats very little and his parents are worried, trying to understand. He skims the walls on the way to school, he feels dizzy. He is afraid of meeting Yann's gang on the way to school. Rumors come to his ears, horrors about him, about those close to him. Yann, for his part, seems to flourish in his role as all-powerful leader. Alexis knows that some students and adults see what is happening. He feels humiliated, guilty, ashamed, weak, abandoned. He is alone with his pain. He feels chased everywhere, all the time. He doesn't sleep at all anymore. He is afraid, he keeps silent, he ends up talking to his parents about suicide. Then one day in class, he breaks down, takes Yann's things, throws them on the ground violently and leaves the classroom. The teacher says to Alexis: “You are sick. You need to see a psychologist.” The parents are devastated by the teacher's attitude. His vision of things is that it is Alexis who must get help because his psychological discomfort is at the origin of the problem. Alexis' parents are very worried and write to the director who receives them. The director wants to show support towards the teacher and insists by reminding that Alexis was wrong to get angry. Faced with this blocked situation, parents are desperate. As if the situation wasn't already bad enough for Alexis. Faced with the rigidity of the system which does not want to see or hear and will pretend to act, faced with the approach of the educational framework limited to a linear causality relating only to the victim, faced with even more stigmatization of the victim of harassment , the parents' solution could only be to change their child's school.

      What are the responsibilities of adults, schools and national education towards the children entrusted to them? What training and tools should be made available to take action? How to take into account the psychological aftereffects? What evolution for the culprit who sometimes escapes authority and rules with impunity? What to do with those around you, with silent witnesses or with those who incite harassment? Alexis' story illustrates the failure of a school system where the designation of a culprit and the sanction are the alpha and omega of the management of harassment. But what happens after? How will the child break away from this labeling? Who will teach Alexis to confront herself? The story is always the same and repeats itself, over and over again.

      We observe a 69% increase in school bullying in one year (2022 National Education report). Several national surveys show that girls are victims as much as boys. In CM1-CM2, 2.6% of students experience high levels of multiple victimization related to harassment. This figure is 5.6% in middle school and 1.3% in high school. A survey on harassment, published in February 2024 by the Ministry of National Education and Youth, defines “school harassment between peers” as “the fact, for a student or a group of students, of subjecting repeated negative or even violent comments or behavior to a friend. Law No. 2022-299 of March 2, 2022 brought school harassment into the Penal Code within a “prevention, detection, punishment” policy aimed at isolating, removing and punishing the harasser. The legal system complements the prevention and resolution efforts put in place within educational establishments. Faced with proven harassment, the response becomes judicial. The separation of the culprit and the victim leads to a radical solution: “and the fight ceased for lack of combatants” (Corneille, Le Cid, act IV scene 3). The harasser is sidelined, exonerating the other actors from all responsibility. Are these actions enough? Will the culprit continue his actions in another establishment, then in his life? Will the victim's only response be flight and shame? The interactional and systemic vision of harassment The systemic and strategic approach to harassment offers an interactional vision of the process. It considers the complexity of the system and the interactions in which victim, culprit, witnesses, accomplices, perpetrators and loved ones evolve. The first level of interaction is that of the two main actors who enter into a rigid dance of which they become prisoners. The “harasser” invites the “harassed” into a type of dominant/dominated relationship and the dominated ends up submitting, forced. Thus the process put in place results from the meeting between particular personalities, a series of circumstances (school, rivalries, weaknesses etc.), a context, accomplices...The attempt to defend one fuels the insistence of the the other, excited by the accomplices in his demonstration of all power over a submissive peer. Interactions are thus locked in an upward spiral loop, of one-upmanship, in a perpetual dysfunctional system.

      Systemic definition of school bullying

      School bullying is a relationship pathology within a complex and repeated dynamic of verbal, physical and psychological violence. It involves not only the direct interaction between the aggressor and the victim. It also includes surrounding systems and circles such as the school, families of affected individuals and broader communities including the pervasive influence of social media. The search for culprits, although intuitive, turns out to be insufficient, even counterproductive given the complexity of the phenomenon. In this conception, each actor and system contributes to settling into a rigid relationship, reinforcing a cycle of submission and domination where one party's attempts at defense and control fuel the other's insistence. This interaction is not limited to the direct relationship between aggressor and victim but is influenced and maintained by the reactions, expectations and norms of different systems. Schools, as primary socialization spaces, families, as primary circles of support and influence, and broader communities, participate in the perpetuation and interruption of this dysfunctional dynamic.

      Systemic definition of school bullyingHow and why are those around you part of the problem?

      Systemic reading questions the context to intervene effectively with the actors in place: other children, the school, parents, health professionals, educators, AESH... How do they act? Are they in a protective posture allowing them to capitalize on resources or in a hyper-protection preventing the child from finding their autonomy? “If we protect too much, we end up weakening” (de Scorraille et al., 2017). On the contrary, in the context of a more authoritarian education, will the victim have a tendency to remain silent so as not to admit his weakness? This is the case for many children who do not dare to tell their parents that they are being bullied, for fear of appearing even weaker if adults intervene. Likewise, involving teaching staff means recognizing that we are weak and that we cannot defend ourselves alone. This is how an authoritarian posture of those around them fuels a feeling of shame, also freezing the harassed in the process of harassment and in the dilemma opposing their desire to be strong and their inability to confront themselves.

      How to act?

      How can we help our children learn or relearn how to confront? There are several confrontation strategies. Knowing how to confront means adapting your strategy to the context: at what point is it necessary to learn to “not let yourself be pushed around” to use the words of Emmanuelle Piquet (Don’t let yourself get carried away! Payot, 2014) ? For some, it will be necessary to learn to be kind or to manage their emotions in order to win without fighting (de Scorraille et al., 2017), for others it will be a matter of learning to avoid avoiding or to implement new learning such as the idiot game proposed by Dr. Philippe Aïm (2021) in his book Facing school harassment. “This relational learning is essential: it induces in children the ability to manage their relationships well with their peers or, on the contrary, to become vulnerable in the face of aggression” (Marie Quartier, Harassment at school: teaching him to defend himself, Eyrolles, 2016.)

      Incorporating proven methods to combat school bullying is crucial. The recent prevention method (Bellon, J.-P., & Gardette, B. (2020)) engages the entire educational community in prevention and awareness actions. (Prevention of school bullying: A systemic and participatory approach. Paris: Éditions de l’Éducation). The 3 figures method, developed by Serge Tisseron (2006) aims to strengthen empathy and cooperation among students. Finally, the shared concern method, developed by Anatol Pikas (2002), offers a non-punitive approach, encouraging perpetrators of harassment to become aware of the consequences of their actions. It’s not just the bullied who needs to change.

      The work must be undertaken, depending on each situation, with everyone around them, parents, school staff, the harasser, other students.

      Effectiveness in the treatment of harassment situations by systemic specialists®

      The systemic approach makes it possible to act effectively. With 80% of cases resolved or improved in 5.4 sessions 1 and 5.3 months on average, the results of the effectiveness of brief systemic and strategic therapy in cases of harassment invite reflection on the responses that are proposed.

      Put debate and conflict management back at the center of education

      Bullying at school TribuneToo many examples have shown us that avoidance leads to tragedy. Have we forgotten that conflict is inherent to life? Should we not rehabilitate the art of confrontation and debate? Re-introduce the art of rhetoric and the ability to debate and exchange? Because confrontation is debate and debate is democracy. The conflict is today frozen in its terminal phase of violence which the scientist and philosopher Anatole Rapoport identifies in his work Combats, debates and games as the failure of confrontation which transforms any adversary into an enemy. This radicalized position based on certainties where difference is no longer admitted leads to war, seen as the failure of communication and mutual understanding. This forgets that before going to war, there are two other ways of learning to confront each other: through games or through debate. “When language regresses, violence progresses” (Philippe Meirieu) Relationship, play, debate, confrontation must be at the heart of education. Teachers, educators, carers and parents are sometimes helpless in the face of the proliferation of difficult situations involving children or adolescents who are suffering, losing their bearings and sometimes violent. What posture should you adopt in these situations? How to deal with harassment? Faced with this need for solutions and faced with the dismay of teachers and educational staff, the University of Paris 8, in partnership with LACT, created a DU to train teachers and education staff in the systemic approach and managing complex situations.

      In order for these systems teaching courses to be integrated into the training of teachers and education staff, we ask the government to get involved in the deployment of the systemic approach, in particular by:

      • Recognition of a systemic and interactional definition of harassment,
      • The creation of training courses in the systemic approach for teachers, education professionals and health personnel,
      • The creation of a center of system specialists who can intervene in establishments on request (CMP, PJJ, hospitals, schools, universities),
      • The creation of an observation and evaluation unit for systemic practices in the field of education.

      ¹ Data 02/2024 from the SYPRENE Practice and Research Network produced from 31 cases of harassment. The initial results of the SYPRENE study (1150 cases) show considerable improvement in patients, with success rates of 80% according to practitioner assessments and 90% according to patients, a significant improvement in psychosocial function reported by patients, and 76% of cases achieving a reliable and clinically significant change. See also Vitry et al. (2021). Effectiveness and Efficiency of Strategic and Systemic Therapy in Naturalistic Settings: Preliminary Results from a Systemic Practice Research Network (SYPRENE). Journal of Family Therapy , 43(4), 516-537.

      I sign this forum

      Grégoire VITRY - PhD - Systemician. Director LACT. President SYPRES.

      Dominique STEIMLE - Doctor of medicine. Therapist - Systemician.

      Nathalie DURIEZ - Professor of psychology. University of Paris 8.

      Robert NEUBURGER - Psychiatrist.

      Laurent BIBARD - Professor - ESSEC

      Julien BETBEZE - Child psychiatrist

      Patrick BANTMAN - Psychiatrist. Former head of department at Saint-Maurice Hospital.

      Audrey BECUWE - HDR Professor in management sciences. University of Limoges.

      Olivier Gabriel BROSSEAU - Systemician. Therapy and coaching. Associated LACT-SYPRENE.

      Gérard  OSTERMANN - Professor of therapy, specialist in internal medicine, Psychotherapist, ARS.

      Jean-Pierre POURTOIS - Professor emeritus of the University of Mons in educational sciences.

      Bénédicte CRUCIS - Psychopractitioner. Systemician.

      Bénédicte ROUSSEAU - Executive coach. Systemician.

      Véronique ENNES - Systemician. Coaching, therapy, intervention in organizations.

      Marina BLANCHART - Clinical psychologist.

      Sandrine CHALET - Psychologist, teacher.

      Catherine VIDAL - Systemician and family therapist.

      Sabria TAHAR-BELHADJ - Systemic Therapist.

      Claude de SCORRAILLE - Psychologist. President of LACT and the SYPRES education club.

      Eric BARDOT - Psychiatrist.

      Christelle BARTHEZ - Social and family mediator.

      Estelle PIAZZA - Sophrologist & Coach specialized in children and adolescents. Currently training in the systemic approach.

      Muguette PERAMIN - National Education Psychologist.

      Sophie DELOBELLE - Professor librarian.

      Adriana TOURNY

      Alain VIDAL - National education.

      Cristina BONVECCHIO - Career guidance coach for adolescents.

      Sabine MARTINUZZI - Brief systemic therapy therapist.

      Béatrice GIRAUDEAU - Hypnotherapist.

      Rachid AMROUCHE - Guidance counselor.

      Cecile Henriques

      Séverine MAS - Clinical psychologist. Psychotherapist.

      Stéphanie FRAYRET - Hypnotherapist.

      Roxane BERNARD - Educational psychologist - Relationship clinician.

      Céline GARCIA - Quality engineer.

      Pauline DE WITT - Headhunter and coach.

      Christelle BARTHEZ - Social and family mediator.

      Olivier GIGNOUX - Coach & Psycho-practitioner.

      Paul CHEVALIER - Student at Lact.

      Michel PAILLET - Entrepreneur.

      Amélie MAMLOUK - Clinical psychologist, family therapist

      Pierre COLIN - Engineer

      Bertrand WEIDENAUER - Coach and HR consultant

      Christianne PERREAU - Therapist

      Catherine VIDAL - Systemician - Family therapist

      Emmanuelle GERNET - EMDR therapy psychologist and systemic approach

      Audrey BRUN - Systemic psychologist

      Anne-Charlotte de MAUPEOU - Therapist

      Sylvie MALAVAL - Psychopractitioner. Systemicist

      Kathy GELINEAU - Systemic Family Therapist

      Béatrice BOIS - Practice analyzer/family mediator

      Christine DORIDON - Psychopractitioner in brief systemic and strategic therapy

      Sabine MULKO - Therapist

      Vincent FREDERIQUE - Psychologist

      Szwertak ERZANA - Coach, Systemic Therapist and Hypnosis Practitioner

      Carine LACASSIN - Therapist

      Corinne FREHRING TARNAUD - Systemic therapist

      Karine NOGER - Psychologist

      David LANDRY - General practitioner, practitioner in hypnosis and brief therapies

      Abessa HACHICH - Systemic psychotherapist

      Anne Cécile LOUERAT - Psychologist - family therapist

      Didier LADEVEZE - Palo Alto Coach-Trainer-Therapist

      Jean-Pierre PFAUWADEL - Therapist

      Roberte RICHELET - Retired

      Rachel ZENSES - Trainer - consultant

      Aurélie POLACHOWSKI - Teacher

      Lucile CHRISTODOULOU - Spychopractor


      Other signatories

      DUBOIS DEJEAN Anne marriage and family counsellor, family therapist at Cabinet Families and Company

      LAMOUREUX Claude , INSA engineer and former lecturer at HEC

      MICHAU Jean-Henri , coach

      HACHICH Abessa , systemic psychotherapist

      CHERIF Zeineb maya , risk officer

      RACINE Geneviève , retired DCIO supervising psychotherapist

      BISSERIER Laure , specialized educator

      CORBOZ Jessy , family therapist

      MASTER Amanda , psychotherapist in Brief Therapy according to the Palo Alto model

      LEPINE Emmanuelle , clinical psychologist- family therapist

      MINET Alain , researcher at LCSP and Paris 7

      FAUVET Christina , psychotherapist

      BACONNIER Christophe , magistrate and coach

      BOURGLAN Yannique , Equicoach equitherapist

      WATTELLE Valerie , coach

      ZEPPENFELD Christine , Deputy Principal

      PERROT Carine , organizational psychologist

      FALCOZ christophe , psychotherapist in brief, systemic and strategic therapy, Coeur&Sens

      SCHLEICH Isabelle , Trainer-Coach

      DUJARDIN Nathalie , coach

      HENRIE Danièle , DE mediator and systemic therapist

      ROSENBERG Khalid , systemicist of organizations

      DELROEUX Olivier , psychiatrist - systemic therapist

      TANNDT-NOWAK Margot , Director of Education, Systemician

      BLIMA Denise , certified professional coach and supervisor

      COSTE Bruno , administrator

      RAINAUT Franck , certified professional coach

      MULKO Sabine , systemic therapist, hypnotherapist and supervisor

      PINILLA MARIN  Andres , independent nurse in mental health & psychiatry

      JECKEL Julie , Family Mediator

      NIATI Abdelhamid , Professional coach

      NAODINGAR Geneviève , consultant coach

      MEYRIGNAC Céline , Work psychologist trained in systemic intervention in companies

      COCHOU Émeline , psychotherapist

      CAZAUD-ROMANENS Marie-Hélène , retired psychiatrist

      BEAUVILLARD Anne , practitioner and researcher on cooperation and the quality of the relationship, InsTerCoop institute of cooperative territories

      MEYER Pascale , coach

      CHAUVIN Sylvie , psychologist

      SAUVAITRE Laure , relational therapist

      BOIS Béatrice , supervisor, family mediator

      SERANGE Marie , psychologist

      MAIGRET Olivier , consultant coach

      BENYAHIA Yacine , special educator, family therapist

      MARTINEAU Christophe , coach and trainer

      MARCHAND Géry , psychologist, family therapist

      GORLENKO Natalia , clinical psychologist, psychotherapist

      HUMEAU Karine , network facilitator

      PREGNO Gilbert , psychologist, President of the Consultative Commission on Human Rights

      CHENET Charlotte , family therapist

      ALBERTON Corinne , school assistant

      DORIDON Christine , psychotherapist in brief systemic and strategic therapy

      BERRAZZOUK Amine , engineer and Psychologist

      DEMERLÉ Eric , professional coach, certified in systemic approach

      MATZKE Claudio , systemic practitioner, family therapist

      DE SCORRAILLE Etienne , retired

      RODRIGUES DA SILVA Anne-sophie , lawyer

      TESSIER dimitri , family therapist psychologist

      PUYSSEGUR Maryline , psychologist

      CHOLLET Nathalie , systems engineer

      GHIRINGHELLI Eva , systemic therapist, hypnotherapist, sex therapist

      CHAMPAGNAC Benedicte , head of department

      SZWARC Karla , Communication interface in LSF

      ADRIEN Vladimir , psychiatrist

      INSA Herve , psychotherapist and professional coach

      ZOUAIN Marie-Aude , clinician of the practical relationship of hypnosis

      BERNARD Roxane , relational therapist, educational psychologist, teacher

      BRETHES Christophe , psychogeriatrician

      BERTIN Christophe , relationship practitioner

      SAMUEL Raymonde , psychotherapist

      BLEIN Laetitia , certified professional coach and trainer

      BAUZA Marie , psychologist Family therapist

      DUFAYEL Nathalie , family therapist

      CARO Sabrina , psychologist

      FREDERICQ Celine , professional mediator

      AMESSAN Degny , doctor

      MAS Sylvie , general practitioner

      ALLIMANN Frédérique , family therapist

      CARRON Pascal , teacher trainer.

      BRENGARD Dominique , child psychiatrist emeritus of hospitals, family therapist.

      GHANDOUR Sabrina , coach - psychotherapist

      VITRY Marie-Laure , designer

      SAISON MARSOLLIER Sandrine , pedagogue and trainer

      DUMORTIER Saoussen , retirement

      TONNELÉ Arnaud , coach

      VERBRUGGE FALTOT Céline , coach

      VERNIER AnneSophie , practitioner in Brief Therapy

      SCOTT Laura , real estate agent

      CIERZNIEWSKI Eric , trainer coach

      BAUZA Marie , family psychologist therapist

      BARTHEZ Christelle , social mediator

      ALLIMANN Frédérique , family therapist

      JULIA Christophe , systemic therapist

      FREITAS Rute , psychologist

      CHARRAS CAROLE , psychosociologist

      GERNET Emmanuelle , systemic approach and EMDR psychologist

      SANTOS Lydie , social worker and family therapist in systemic

      CORRE-TAALBA Sandrine , psychologist / doctoral student

      OUAKNINE SERGE , director Writer Poet morning and night Polyglot

      BOURGIN Catherine , insurance manager

      ANCEL Geneviève , territorial administrator

      BRUN Audrey , systemic psychologist

      BERTIN Christophe , social worker

      LEHMANN MIKAEL , coach and psychotherapist in systemic and strategic brief therapy

      D'ESCATHA PICAT Aurelie , engineer Coach Relationship clinician in training

      HACHE Béatrice , psychologist

      ALCIDE DIT CLAUZEL Line , management controller

      DIEUX Magali , head of education

      LABISSY Anne-Hélène , certified professional coach, systemician

      RONGER Valérie , specialized educator and systemic therapist

      IBAR Isabelle , CFO

      ROGER Sébastien , certified transition manager coach

      VIE Chantal , family therapist and DE Mediator

      REGHEM Patricia , HR

      WEGERICH Karine , early childhood service manager

      HEWARD Charlotte , Humanitarian

      FOUBERT isabelle , HR consultant Skills assessment Professional coach

      NGUYEN HUYNH Frédéric , professional coach

      DJIDA DANYA , IT engineer, social entrepreneur,

      DALMASSO cyriane , coach

      BARTOLI Dominique , systemic therapist

      WEIDENAUER Bertrand , strategic coach

      PAVIE Christophe , dietitian-nutritionist

      MAMLOUK Amélie , clinical psychologist - family couple therapist

      COTINAUT Francoise , psychotherapist

      COSTEDOAT-LAMARQUE Bénédicte , professional coach, supervisor, speaker and author

      FREHRING Corinne , systemic therapist

      CHEVALIER Paul , student

      LE MAGOAROU Laurence , HRD

      PERREAU Christiane , systemic therapist

      SIMONET Julie , psychotherapist in brief systemic and strategic therapy and Mediator

      DE RUS LLORDEN Coralie , AS / Legal expert / Family therapist

      MASCLET Laurent , psychiatrist, family therapist

      DEREL Camille , systemic approach practitioner

      LETIERCE Sophie , HRD

      COUANON Cathy , sophrologist and family therapist

      LACASSIN Carine , therapist

      MALAVAL Sylvie , coordinator

      PIZZATO Samuel , General Manager in Territorial Collectivity / Doctoral student in management sciences

      MEILLAND Fabienne , specialist educator

      DE MAUPEOU Anne charlotte , therapist

      JOUZEL Pascale , psychotherapist

      SZWERTAK Erzana , coach, systemic therapist and hypnosis practitioner

      BOUSCASSE Nathalie , sociologist and executive coach

      PARIS-ZAPATA Céline , psychologist

      DANILENKOFF Laura , educator and Sophrologist

      LAFITTE Jean-Yves , doctor

      FOTI David , specialized educator and sophrologist

      DETOLLENAERE Amelie , Learning & Development Manager, Psychologist and Coach

      LAMIAUX Colette , Relationship Clinician Systemicist

      DAS Jean-Philippe , Systemic therapist

      BAJARD Séverine , social worker and systemic therapist

      BERNADICOU Angelique , family therapist

      DERUE Nathalie , Marriage and Family Counselor

      SCHALBAR Nathalie , social worker

      MOUNTAIN Nathalie , HRD Industry

      LANDRY David, general practitioner

      PARAMÉ Christine , System Engineer and General Manager

      TERRISSE Vincent , doctor

      FROGER Christine , DE family mediator

      TRIPPIER Nadia , systemic family therapist

      Pascal BELY , consultant

      ROCHARD sophie , service manager and family therapist

      PASDELOUP Catherine , systemic psychotherapist

      FERRY Christelle , specialized educator and family therapist

      VIDAL Catherine , therapist

      ROUMIEUX Ludovic , CTO

      DESHAYES Elisa , welcoming listener MDA

      GROMETTO Isabelle , psychotherapist

      JURY Vanina , social worker

      CHALET sandrine , psychologist, teacher

      VINCENT Frédérique , clinical psychologist

      DELCOURT Francois , osteopath coach

      GIGNOUX Olivier , go management

      A team of more than
      50 trainers in France
      and abroad

      of our students satisfied with
      their training year at LACT *

      International partnerships

      The quality certification was issued under
      the following category of actions: Training action

      A team of more than
      50 trainers in France
      and abroad

      of our students satisfied with
      their training year at LACT *

      International partnerships

      The quality certification was issued under
      the following category of actions: Training action


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